The peace treaty with Imam Hassan (as) 3

The peace treaty with Imam Hassan (as) 3

Reply Eight – Imam Hasan (as) made peace on account of pressure

Ibn Asakir in his authority work ‘Tareekh Damishq’ and Imam Dhahabi in ‘Siyar Alam Nubla’(1) records:

إلا وان معاوية دعانا إلى أمر ليس فيه عز ولا نصفة فان اردتم الموت رددناه عليه وحاكمناه إلى الله جل وعز بظبا ( 5 ) السيوف وان اردتم الحياة قبلناه واخذنا لكم الرضا فناداه القوم من كل جانب البقية البقية ( 6 ( فلما افردوه امضى الصلح

Hasan said: “Be informed that Mu’awiya has called us to such a treaty that is neither honourable nor is it based on justice. If you are ready for death then we will reject this offer, and answer the matter with our swords and leave the matter with Allah. If you like life then we can accept it. Upon saying this, the calls from all around were’Taqqiyyah, Taqqiyyah’ when the people left Hasan, he made peace”.(2)

Ibn Asakir has used to the words ‘Baqqiyyah Baqqiyah’ but he said Dahabi has recorded it them as ‘Taqqiyah Taqqiyah’ in ‘Siyar Alam Nubla’ hence we used it likewise.(3)

Imam Nawawi records:

فإن قيل فكيف خلع الحسن بن علي نفسه؟ قلنا لعله علم من نفسه ضعفا عن تحملها أو علم أنه لا ناصر له ولا معين فخلع نفسه تقية

“If it is been asked as how did Hassan bin Ali oust himself? We would reply that perhaps he figured out his inability due to weakness, or perhaps he figured out that he had no supporter hence he ousedt himself under Taqqiyah”.(4)

We appeal to justice! The Taqiyyah mentioned above was the same Taqiyyah that a terrified / tearful Abu Bakr adopted in the cave, that the Prophet (s) adopted at Hudaibya where he had to delete the words ‘Prophet of Allah’ from the treaty doucment.

Reply Nine – If you see Mu’awiya on my pulpit kill him (hadeeth)(5)

We read the following hadith in the above cited books:

اذا رايتم معاوية على منبري فاقتلوه

“If you see Mu’awiya on my pulpit then kill him”

Sheikh Muhammad bin Aqeel al-Hadrami (d. 1350 H) said in his book ‘al-Atab al-Jameel ala ahl al-Jarh wa al-Tadeel’(6) that the hadith is Sahih. An interesting event in connection with this event can be located in ‘Ansab al Ashraf’(7):

“On one occasion an Ansari individual wanted to kill Mu’awiya, the people said, ‘the sword cannot be raised during the reign of Umar, they said that he should write to Umar and seek his consent. He replied ‘I heard that Rasulullah had said: ‘If you see Mu’awiya on my pulpit then kill him’. The people confirmed that they had also heard the hadith, but said we have not carried out this action, so let us write to Umar on the matter, which they did, but Umar did not write back to resolve the matter, until he died”

We read in Maqatil al Husayn:

“Hussain said to Marwan: ‘My grandfather said: ‘Khilafah in the family of Abu Sufyan is haraam, since they embraced Islam after the conquest of Makka’. My grandfather also said: ‘When you see Mu’awiya on my pulpit then rip open his stomach’. The people of Madina failed to kill Mu’awiya, which is why Allah (swt) on account of His wrath gave them the leadership of Yazeed”.

We appeal to justice. If Mu’awiya had not become Khalifa after making peace with Imam Hasan (as), the Prophet (s) would not have issued an order that he be killed. It is clear that when the Prophet (s) dreamt of the Banu Ummayya climbing his pulpit like monkeys it referred to Mu’awiya, which is why he (s) wanted him to be killed. The leadership of anyone who has to be killed when attaining power, is unacceptable. Imam Hasan (as) made peace, that was it. The Prophet (s) deemed the Khilafath of Mu’awiya to be so unpalatable that he said he had to be killed the moment he sat on his throne. That makes all the arguments of Nasibis that the son of Hind’s reign was legitimate to sheer nonsense.

Reply Ten – Banu Zarqa cannot be Khalifas(8)

Tarikh al Khualafa: “Sa’ad said to the Safina: ‘The Banu Umayya state that the Prophetic Khialfah is their right’. Safina said: ‘The Zarqa lie, they are Kings, and their first king was Mu’awiya’.

Safina did not recognise Mu’awiya as Khailifa after the peace with Hasan (as) rather he deemed him the first from a line of Banu Umayya kings, in exactly the same way that Ayesha compared Muawiya to the rule of Pharoah.

Reply Eleven – Imam Hasan (as) made peace to protect Muslim lives, property and honour, and thus provided an example for those people faced with difficult choices.

We read in Tarikh ibn Asakir, Dhikr Hasan:(9)

قال يا مالك لا تقل ذلك أني لما رأيت الناس تركوا ذلك إلا أهله خشيت أن تجتثوا عن وجه الأرض فاردت أن يكون للدين في الأرض ناعي

“After Hasan made peace with Mu’awiya, Malik ibn Dhumr said: ‘You have blackened the face of the believers’ to which he [Hasan] replied: ‘Don’t say this! I feared that the Muslims would be exterminated from the earth. My desire is that some people will remain on the earth who will mention Islam to the people”(10)

Ibn Kathir records the following clear cut words of Imam Hasan (as):

“Naeem bin Hamad has narrated that Ibn Fazeel has narrated from Sari bin Ismaeel narrated to us from Shaybi that Sufiyan bin al-Lail narrated to me that when Hasan bin Ali [ra] came Madina from Kufa, I said to him: ‘O the one who disgraced the believers’. He replied: ‘Dont say this! I heard Holy Prophet [s] saying that day and nights will not cease to end until Muawiyah becomes king, thus I knew that Allah’s ‘will’ had to take place, therefore I did not like bloodshed of Muslims taking place between me and him” (11)

Imam of Ahle Sunnah Ibn Habban in al-Thuqat,(12) cites how ruthless and low Mu’awiya was prepared to stoop to seize power:

فاحتال معاوية في الحسن بن علىوتلطف له وخوفه هراقه دماء المسلمين وهتك حرمهم وذهاب أموالهم إن لم يسلم الأمرلمعاوية فاختار الحسن ما عند الله على ما في الدنيا وسلم الأمر إلى معاوية

 Mu’awyia tricked Hassan bin Ali and issued a threat of shedding Muslim’s blood, sexually abusing them, and destroying their properties if he didn’t give up Caliphate in favour of  him [Mu'awyia]. Hassan therefore chose what was with Allah over what is in the world and handed over Caliphate to Mu’awiya.

 Salafi scholar Hasan bin Farhan al-Maliki in his book ‘Qeraah fi Kutub al-Aqaed’(13) attests to the hidden benefit that came from the peace treaty:

صلح الحسن أفضل من تعرضه ومن معه من بقية أهل البيت ومحبيهم لمذبحة ينتهي فيها ذكر أهل البيت !! فصلح الحسن أتاح لهؤلاء المحبين الاختلاط بالناس ونقل أحاديث علي وفقهه وعلمه

“The peace treaty made by Hasan was better than his slaughter as well as that of the remaining Ahlulbayt members and their adherents, that would have brought about an end to remembrance of the Ahlulbayt!! Hasan’s peace making enabled their adherents to contact the people and transmit Ali’s traditions, jurisprudence and knowledge”

Our Imam (as) did not stop the war because he deemed Mu’awiya to be legally entitled to rule the Ummah, rather he did so to protect the life, honour and properties of Muslims. In the same way that our Prophet (s) made peace with the Makkan Kuffar to avoid Muslim bloodshed, Imam Hasan (as) did exactly the same when he made peace with Imam Hasan (as). The role of the Imam (as) is to set an example for the people so that future generations can rely on his decision making when faced with a difficult choice. We appeal to justice, was there not a more difficult choice that this one?

The Imam (as) was giving up that which was his legitimate right, yet he weighed up the consequences, and felt that the less harmful / better option would be to vacate his seat, in doing so he set a precedent, with regards to how one should decide on a matter when faced with difficult choices, as has been attested to by Salafi scholar Hasan bin Farhan al-Maliki in his book ‘Qeraah fi Kutub al-Aqaed’(14) said:

كما تعلم الناس من الحسن اختيار أخف الضررين

“Also the people learnt from Hasan, to opt for the less harmful option when faced with two matters”.

Continue in the next article: ( The peace treaty with Imam Hassan (as) 4 )

NOTES:

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1. Volume 3 page 269

2. Tarikh Ibn Asakir, Volume 13 page 268

3. Volume 3 page 269

4. Kitab al-Majmoa, Volume 21 page 29 

5. We will cite this Prophetic Hadeeth from the following esteemed Sunni works:

  • Mizan al-Itidal Volume 2 page 17; Volume 2 page 129 on the authority of Abu Said al Khudri; Volume 7 page 324 and Volume 8 page 74
  • al Bidayah wa al Nihaya Volume 8 page 133 Dhikr Mu’awiya
  • Kunzul Haqaiq, Volume 1 page 18
  • Tatheer al Janaan, columm on Sawaiqh al Muhriqa page 62
  • Al Nasa al Kifaya page 35
  • Maqatil al Husayn, page 175
  • Tareekh Tabari, Volume 13 the events of 284 Hijri, the rule of Banu Ummayya
  • Tahdeeb al Tahdeeb, Volume 5 page 110 Dhikr Ubada bin Yaqoob
  • Tareekh al Baghdad, Volume 12 page 181 Dhikr bin Ubayd
  • Tabaqat by Ibn Sad, Volume 4 page 134-135
  • al Kamil fi Safa al Rijal, Volume 2 page 146 hadith number 343,
  • Ansab al Ashraf, Volume 5 page 136,
  • Waqt Sifeen, page 216 and 221

6. page 63

7. Volume 5 page 136

8. We will evidence this from the following esteemed Sunni works:

  • Sunan Tirmidhi, Volume 2 page 114 Kitab al Fitan
  • Sunan Abu Daud, Kirtab al Sunnah Volume 4 page 211
  • Asad ul Ghaba page 411 Dhikr Safiba Sahabi
  • Sawaiqh al Muhriqa page 131 Kitab Dhikr Sahaba
  • Tarikh al Khulafa page 199, Dhikr Mu’awiya

9. Volume 13 page 280

10. Tarikh ibn Asakir, Volume 13 page 280

11. Al-Bidayah (Urdu), Vol 8 page 974, under the topic of Merits and virtuous of Muawiyah

12. Volume 2 page 305 

13. on page 72

14. on page 72